Electronics Engineering with Basic Fundamental Elements
Electronics Engineering (field of study) is a subject of the branch of physics (science) which is related to study about mechanical behavior pattern of an electron under the influence of different conditions of applied electric field or thermal energy.Electronics Engineering is a subject in which flow and control of an electron in a vacuum or semiconductor are to be studied. Electronics Engineering is a subject in which electronic devices and their electron’s behavior pattern, features & characteristics, design engineering, quality analysis, applications and other properties are to be studied. Conventionally, the electric current flowing direction is opposite with respect to flowing direction of electrons.This current can be generated by transducers devices in which another energy form is to be converted into electrical energy. By using the battery chemical energy is to be converted into electrical current energy. By the generator devices, petrochemical energy is to be converted into electrical energies.The operation of an electronic device depends upon the mechanical motion of electrons under the influence of applied electric and magnetic field. The behavior of an electron under the influence of applied electric & magnetic field is termed as electron ballistics.The behaviour of an electron under the influence of these fields OR electron ballistics are related to the subject matter of charged particle,force,field intensity,potential and energy,two dimensional motion of electron,force & motion in a magnetic field,parallel & perpendicular electric & magnetic fields, electrostatic deflection in CRT,magnetic deflection in CRT and magnetic focusing.The device which controls the flow of electrons, as well as flow of current, is called electronic device. Hence, Two-word Electronics and Mechanics are combined pair term is Electronics.
Electronics Engineering and Technology have various type of branches includes
- Analog Electronics
Analog electronics system or analog electronic circuits are electronics that handle analog signals with the continuously variable signal can be obtained at the output. There is no discontinuity exist.
- Digital Electronics
By creating discrete bands of analog signal levels we obtained digital signals. The digital signals are to be controlled by digital electronics device & digital electronics circuits. These are able to perform so many tasks with high accuracy.It is manufactured by digital circuits IC(s), Logic Gates,multiplexer,demultiplexer,decoder, encoder,flip-flop,counter,register,7-segment display etc etc.Only binary digits either 0 or 1 are to be used in digital electronics circuits & digital electronics system.It is designed is done by Digital Design Methodologies.
- Micro Electronics
Micro word meaning ‘extremely small’ or ‘small scale’ level. Design, manufacturer, production of microchips, microprocessor, microcontroller & microcircuits.Where, current, voltage, power all electrical parameters are at the microscale level. Where, science & technology deals by making and using extremely small electronic part.
- What is Nano Electronics?
Nano term refers to submicroscopic small scale,”nanotube”.Represent by a factor of 10−9 which is unit of measurement. Nanoelectronics is a nanotechnology which is for applying in electronics circuit, electronic devices & electronic component. There is required to study quantum mechanical science and inter-atomic design.
- Opto Electronic Integrated Circuits
Opto word means light. Opto-Electronics is a subject of science & Technology there optical physics & electricity act together combinedly.The devices which convert light to electricity and electricity to light are called transducer and inverse transducer respectively. Such transducers are to be called optoelectronic device. These optoelectronic devices related to study and application of source, detect, control light.Optoelectronics is a part of Photonics science. Photonics is science related to radiant of light energy.
- Integrated Circuits
Integrated Circuit is manufactured by especially silicon semiconductor material where large numbers of basic electronic components diodes, resistors, transistors, capacitors etc lies in a single small chip.
The fundamental passive components of the Basic Electronics Engineering are given below:-
- Resistors: These are used to control the electric current as per requirements.
- Capacitors: These are used for saving the electrical charges, Charge, and Discharge as per requirement and blocks to flow DC & allow to flow AC.
- Inductors: These are used for blocking AC before allowing DC for passing, separate the signals of different frequencies by filtering as well as combined with capacitors its make tuned circuits to used fortune radio and TV receivers.
- Transistors: A transistor is a solid semiconductor device and non-moving part to pass an electrical charge. Transistor is used for switch electrical power and electronic signals which is to be connected to the external circuit.
The Basic Electronic Engineering components are given below:-
IC classification based on numbers of components per chip below:-
SSI (small-scale integrated circuits 100 electronic components per chip)
MSI (medium-scale integrated circuit 100 to 3,000 electronic components per chip)
LSI (large scale integrated circuit 3,000 to 100,000 electronic components per chip)
VLSI(very large scale integrated circuit 100,000 to 1,000,000 electronic components per chip)
VVLSI(very very large scale integrated circuits More than 1.5 million electronic components per chip)
- Types of Semiconductor Devices (Semiconductor)
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor device that emits visible light by different colors at forwarding bias, mean when an electric current passes through it.
Semiconductors have consisted of Germanium, Silicon and Gallium Arsenide.Electrical current conduction in the semiconductor is less than metal conductor and greater than insulator means medium electrical conductivity available. Semiconductor devices have the wide range of applications due to their compactness, reliability and low cost.
Examples of two terminal semiconductor devices
- the solar cell
Examples of three terminal semiconductor devices
Example of four terminal devices
- a) hall effect sensors
- b) photocoupler.
Example of Multi-terminal devices:
- Logic gate
- Multiplexer, Demultiplexer
- Shift register
- Operational amplifier
- ADC (Analog-to-digital converter)
- DAC (Digital-to-analog converter)
- The integrated circuit(ICs)
The present generation is of the Digital Technology